Third Party Studies

Below are links to recent studies carried out by the European Commission, legal researchers and academics that provide detailed evidence of how PAEs can harm innovation and are increasingly exploiting Europe’s legal system to the detriment of European innovators and Europe’s digital single market ambitions.


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Non-practicing entities in Europe: an empirical analysis of patent acquisitions at the European Patent Office

Industrial and Corporate Change
Valerio Sterzi, Cecilia Maronero, Gianluca Orsatti and Andrea Vezzulli

Proportionality and Flexibilities in Final Injunctive Relief

The Unitary Patent Package & Unified Patent Court
Lisa Van Dongen

Proportionality and Patent Injunctions

Queen Mary Law Research Paper
Maciej Padamczyk and Duncan Matthews, Queen Mary University of London

Injunctions and Damages for the Infringement of Patents under the UPCA - An Analysis in the Light of the Principle of Proportionality

Benjamin Raue, University of Trier, and Franz Hofmann, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Injunctions in Patent Law: Trans-Atlantic Dialogues on Flexibility and Tailoring

Cambridge University Press
Edited by Jorge L. Contreras, University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law, Martin Husovec, Department of Law, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)

Injunctions in the UPC and the principle of proportionality

Stockholm Intellectual Property Law Review, Volume 5 (1)
Prof. Dr. Ansgar Ohly

Towards a More Orderly Application of Proportionality to Patent Injunctions in the European Union

International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC)
Rafal Sikorski

Roadblock to Innovation: The Role of Patent Litigation in Corporate R&D

Management Science
Filippo Mezzanotti

Non-practicing entities and transparency of patent ownership in Europe: the case of UK dormant companies

Technological Forecasting and Social Change 2021
Valerio Sterzi, Jean-Paul Rameshkoumar, Johannes Van Der Pol

Patent Assertion Entities and Patent Ownership Transparency: Strategic Recording of Patent Transactions at the Uspto

Journal of Competition Law & Economics
Valerio Sterzi

Cutting Back Over-Enforcement – How to Address Abusive Practices Within the EU Enforcement Framework

Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and E-Commerce Law
Alain Strowel, Amandine Leonard

Non-practicing entities and transparency in patent ownership in Europe

Bordeaux Economics Working Papers
Valerio Sterzi, Jean-Paul Rameshkoumar, Johannes Van Der Mol

Injuctive Relief in Patent Remedies and Complex Products: Towards A Global Consensus

Cambridge University Press
Norman V. Siebrasse, Rafal Sikorski, Jeorge L. Contreras, Thomas F. Cotter, John Golden, Sang Jo Jong, Brian J. Love, and David O. Taylor

Economic Implications of Automatic Injunctions in German Patent Litigation

Copenhagen Economics
Hendrik Fügemann, Claire F. Danielsson, Neil Gallagher

Wrongful Infringement Proceedings

Communication Commerce Electronique
Christophe Caron

The Unified Patent Court and Patent Trolls in Europe

Michigan Technology Law Review
Jonathan I. Tietz

German Law on Patent Injunctions: Legal Framework and Recent Developments

Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property
Peter Georg Pitch

Patent Law Injunctions, Kluwer Law International

Kluwer Law International
Rafal Sikorki

The good, the bad and the ugly – the future of patent assertion entities in Europe

Journal of Technology Analysis & Strategic Management
Nikolaus Thumm

Patent licensing in the shadow of the Directive on the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights

Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice
Roya Ghafele, Charles Dennery

Do Patent Assertion Entities Harm Innovation? Evidence from Patent Transfers in Europe

Gianluca Orsattati, Valerio Sterzi

NPE Litigation in the European Union


Technological Progress: A Challenge for Patent Law? The Principle of Proportionality Applied to Injunctive Relief in Patent Law

Christian Osterrieth

Technopolis study on the implementation of the IPR Enforcement Directive (IPRED)


Patent Assertion Entities and Legal Exceptionalism in Europe and the United States, a Comparative View

Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition
Jorge L. Contreras

JRC Science for Policy Report, Patent Assertion Entities in Europe, Their impact on innovation and knowledge in ICT transfers


Patent Assertion Entities and EU Competition Law

George Mason Law & Economics
Damien Geradin

Patent Assertion Entities and EU Competition Law

Santa Clara University School of Law
Brian J. Love, Christian Helmers, Fabian Gaessler and Max Ernicke

United States

Patent Demands & Startup Companies: The View from the Venture Capital Community

UC Hastings Research
Robin Feldman

The Direct Costs from NPE Disputes

Cornell Law Review
James Bessan, Michael Meurer

The Effect of Patent Litigation and Patent Assertion Entities on Entrepreneurial Activity

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Catherine E. Tucker

Is patent enforcement efficient?

Boston Law University Review
Mark A. Lemley, Robin Feldman

Patent Policy and American Innovation After eBay: An Empirical Examination

Filippo Mezzanotti, Timothy Simcoe

The Sound and Fury of Patent Activity

Stanford Law and Economics Olin Working Paper
Robin Feldman, Mark A. Lemley

Conference on 22 March 2019 Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Intellectual Property Journal
Franz Hofmann et al.

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